Basic information about RFID
Introduction of RFID
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Some tags are powered by electromagnetic induction from magnetic fields produced near the reader. Some types collect energy from the interrogating radio waves and act as a passive transponder. Other types have a local power source such as a battery and may operate at hundreds of meters from the reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag does not necessarily need to be within line of sight of the reader, and may be embedded in the tracked object. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC).
RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line. Pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses. Livestock and pets may have tags injected, allowing positive identification of the animal. In 2014, the world RFID market was worth ~$8.89 billion, up from $7.77 billion in 2013 and $6.96 billion in 2012. RFID tag sales volumes increased from 13b in 2014 to ~18b in 2019 (including LF, HF, UHF). For UHF tags (50% of RFID tags), this was driven by apparel related applications.
Practical uses around the world
RFID technology has been used for the following:
- General transport (logistics), tracking a package, parcel; replacing barcodes
- tracking vehicles for road toll
- many countries have started using RFID chips in passports
- making products harder to falsify; currently proposed for drugs
- tags in clothing, e.g. in Jeans
- sealing for containers (for the shipping industry). Not required yet.
- identifying animals; used for tracking pets, but also for research, for example on turtles.
- keys for vehicles. The vehicle key has an RFID tag inside; only the key with the right RFID tag can start the vehicle (this makes copying vehicle keys harder). Also used for locking/unlocking vehicles from a distance.
- contactless identity cards, for example to regulate entry into certain areas; also used for ticketing, or public transport
- transponder timing of sporting events.
- making attendance of students
RFID’s main advantages
Reduced distribution costs
RFID scanning requires less manual work, allows for faster identification with improved efficiency – all leading to easier transportation, which means lower distribution costs. Active RFID tags also allow for real-time traceability, which is invaluable for many industries as it automates tracking products.
The major advantage of all kinds of RFID system is that they work contactlessly and wirelessly, because RFID tags don’t need a line of sight in order to be read – an RFID reader can pull information from a tag at distances up to 300 feet even through rough conditions such as snow, fog, ice, dirt etc., in which RFID performs very reliably.
RFID technology, unlike various alternatives, can carry data storage directly on its chip. The advantage of this is obvious – the need for any back-end database with information about the product is now redundant, as all product information is saved on the RFID transponder itself.
Types of RFID
Based on functionality:
- Active – In active RFID systems, tags have their own transmitter and power source. Usually, the power source is a battery. Active tags broadcast their own signal to transmit the information stored on their microchips. Active RFID systems typically operate in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band and offer a range of up to 100 m. In general, active tags are used on large objects, such as rail cars, big reusable containers, and other assets that need to be tracked over long distances. There are two main types of active tags: transponders and beacons. Transponders are “woken up” when they receive a radio signal from a reader, and then power on and respond by transmitting a signal back. Because transponders do not actively radiate radio waves until they receive a reader signal, they conserve battery life. Beacons are used in most real-time locating systems (RTLS), in order to track the precise location of an asset continuously. Unlike transponders, beacons are not powered on by the reader’s signal. Instead, they emit signals at pre-set intervals. Depending on the level of locating accuracy required, beacons can be set to emit signals every few seconds, or once a day. Each beacon’s signal is received by reader antennas that are positioned around the perimeter of the area being monitored, and communicates the tag’s ID information and position.
- Passive – In passive RFID systems, the reader and reader antenna send a radio signal to the tag. The RFID tag then uses the transmitted signal to power on, and reflect energy back to the reader. Passive RFID systems can operate in the low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) or ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio bands. As passive system ranges are limited by the power of the tag’s backscatter (the radio signal reflected from the tag back to the reader), they are typically less than 10m. Because passive tags do not require a power source or transmitter, and only require a tag chip and antenna, they are cheaper, smaller, and easier to manufacture than active tags. Passive tags can be packaged in many different ways, depending on the specific RFID application requirements. For instance, they may be mounted on a substrate, or sandwiched between an adhesive layer and a paper label to create smart RFID labels. Passive tags may also be embedded in a variety of devices or packages to make the tag resistant to extreme temperatures or harsh chemicals. Passive RFID solutions are useful for many applications, and are commonly deployed to track goods in the supply chain, to inventory assets in the retail industry, to authenticate products such as pharmaceuticals, and to embed RFID capability in a variety of devices. Passive RFID can even be used in warehouses and distribution centers, in spite of its shorter range, by setting up readers at choke points to monitor asset movement.
- Battery-assisted passive – A Battery-Assisted Passive RFID tag is a type of passive tag which incorporates a crucial active tag feature. While most passive RFID tags use the energy from the RFID reader’s signal to power on the tag’s chip and backscatter to the reader, BAP tags use an integrated power source (usually a battery) to power on the chip, so all of the captured energy from the reader can be used for backscatter. Unlike transponders, BAP tags do not have their own transmitters.
Based on frequency
- Low frequency (LF) – The LF band covers frequencies from 30 KHz to 300 KHz. Typically LF RFID systems operate at 125 KHz, although there are some that operate at 134 KHz. This frequency band provides a short read range of 10 cm, and has slower read speed than the higher frequencies, but is not very sensitive to radio wave interference. LF RFID applications include access control and livestock tracking. Standards for LF animal-tracking systems are defined in ISO 14223, and ISO/IEC 18000-2. The LF spectrum is not considered a truly global application because of slight differences in frequency and power levels throughout the world.
- High frequency (HF) – The HF band ranges from 3 to 30 MHz. Most HF RFID systems operate at 13.56 MHz with read ranges between 10 cm and 1 m. HF systems experience moderate sensitivity to interference. HF RFID is commonly used for ticketing, payment, and data transfer applications. There are several HF RFID standards in place, such as the ISO 15693 standard for tracking items, and the ECMA-340 and ISO/IEC 18092 standards for Near Field Communication (NFC), a shortrange technology that is commonly used for data exchange between devices. Other HF standards include the ISO/IEC 14443 A and ISO/IEC 14443 standards for MIFARE technology, which used in smart cards and proximity cards, and the JIS X 6319-4 for FeliCa, which is a smart card system commonly used in electronic money cards.
- Ultra-high frequency (UHF) – The UHF frequency band covers the range from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. Systems complying with the UHF Gen2 standard for RFID use the 860 to 960 MHz band. While there is some variance in frequency from region to region, UHF Gen2 RFID systems in most countries operate between 900 and 915 MHz. The read range of passive UHF systems can be as long as 12m, and UHF RFID has a faster data transfer rate than LF or HF. UHF RFID is the most sensitive to interference, but many UHF product manufacturers have found ways of designing tags, antennas, and readers to keep performance high even in difficult environments. Passive UHF tags are easier and cheaper to manufacture than LF and HF tags. UHF RFID is used in a wide variety of applications, ranging from retail inventory management, to pharmaceutical anti-counterfeiting, to wireless device configuration. The bulk of new RFID projects are using UHF opposed to LF or HF, making UHF the fastest growing segment of the RFID market. The UHF frequency band is regulated by a single global standard called the ECPglobal Gen2 (ISO 18000-6C) UHF standard.